Dr. Ron Davis, OMF Scientific Advisory Board Director, explains the PNAS publication on the nanoneedle (April 29, 2019) A paper describing the nanoneedle was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Ronald W. Davis, Ph.D. is the senior author. Rahim Esfandyarpour, Ph.D. is the lead author. The nanoneedle is a test that measures changes in immune cells with their blood plasma as a result of salt stress. Inside the nanoneedle, the immune cells interfere with a small electric current. The change in electrical activity is directly correlated with the health of the sample. The test, which is still in a pilot phase, is based on how a person’s immune cells respond to stress. With blood samples from 40 people — 20 with ME/CFS and 20 without — the test yielded precise results, accurately flagging all patients and none of the healthy individuals.